papua new guinea how many languages

Languages reassigned to the Austronesian family: Søren Wichmann (2013) accepts the following 109 groups as coherent Papuan families, based on computational analyses performed by the Automated Similarity Judgment Program (ASJP) combined with Harald Hammarström's (2012) classification. do not address the more tentative families that Usher proposes, such as Northwest New Guinea. Papuan speakers, who constitute the great majority of the population, live mainly in the interior. [20] He believed that it was naïve to expect to find a single Papuan or Australian language family when New Guinea and Australia had been a single landmass for most of their human history, having been separated by the Torres Strait only 8000 years ago, and that a deep reconstruction would likely include languages from both. In many cases Usher and Suter have created new names for the member families to reflect their geographic location. The majority of the Papuan languages are spoken on the island of New Guinea, with a number spoken in the Bismarck Archipelago, Bougainville Island and the Solomon Islands to the east, and in Halmahera, Timor and the Alor archipelago to the west. [5], The West Papuan, Lower Mamberamo, and most Torricelli languages are all left-headed, as well as the languages of New Britain and New Ireland. More than two-fifths of the population is Protestant; Lutherans make up the largest portion of those, and there are some Anglicans and a growing number of Pentecostals. Speakers were allowed to use their own languages. Joseph Greenberg proposed that the Andamanese languages (or at least the Great Andamanese languages) off the coast of Burma are related to the Papuan or West Papuan languages. Papua New Guinea has over 850 languages, which makes it the most linguistically diverse country on Earth. Nonetheless, Ross believes that he has been able to validate much of Wurm's classification, albeit with revisions to correct for Wurm's partially typological approach. Similarly, several groups that do have substantial basic vocabulary in common with Trans–New Guinea languages are excluded from the phylum because they do not resemble it grammatically. The approximately 550 non-Austronesian languages have small speech communities, the largest being the Engan, Melpa, and Kuman speakers in the Highlands, each with more than 100,000 speakers. Stephen Wurm stated that the lexical similarities between Great Andamanese and the West Papuan and Timor–Alor families "are quite striking and amount to virtual formal identity [...] in a number of instances". Extinct Tambora and the East Papuan languages have not been addressed, except to identify Yele as an Austronesian language. Papua New Guinea is a country located to the north of Australian. The largest family posited for the Papuan region is the Trans–New Guinea phylum, consisting of the majority of Papuan languages and running mainly along the highlands of New Guinea. [2] Since perhaps only a quarter of Papuan languages have been studied in detail, linguists' understanding of the relationships between them will continue to be revised. The westernmost language, Tambora in Sumbawa, is extinct. The great majority of the country’s population lives in rural areas. It was once a British colony, but became independent n 1975. - Wanem nem bilong yu?Who are you? Papua New Guinea is known for its biodiversity, cultures, and languages. Malcolm Ross re-evaluated Wurm's proposal on purely lexical grounds. There are some 200 related Austronesian languages. Introduction. Wurm also suggested the Sepik–Ramu languages have similarities with the Australian languages, but believed this may be due to a substratum effect,[6] but nevertheless believed that the Australian languages represent a linguistic group that existed in New Guinea before the arrival of the Papuan languages (which he believed arrived in at least two different groups). Pidgin English and Hiri Motu are more commonly used (an estimated 742 other languages and dialects are also spoken). See language lists, maps, statistics, and more. Many of these languages are spoken only by a very small number of … The approximately 550 non-Austronesian languages have small speech communities, the largest being the Engan, Melpa, and Kuman speakers in the Highlands, each with more than 100,000 speakers. The last 48 hours here in PNG have been nothing short of incredible. The capital of Papua New Guinea is Port Moresby. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. Papua New Guinea has more languages than any other country, with over 820 indigenous languages, representing 12% of the world's total, but most have fewer than 1,000 speakers. Approximately another one-fifth are Roman Catholics. What is the world’s largest archipelago? The concept of Papuan peoples as distinct from Austronesian-speaking Melanesians was first suggested and named by Sidney Herbert Ray in 1892. Forestry was a controversial industry, with logging companies developing connections with the political elite, and it was marked by corrupt practices including improperly issued licenses, mislabeled species, transfer pricing manipulation (the practice of hiding the real value of transactions—e.g., by undervaluing exports—in order to maximize profits), tax avoidance, environmental damage, and lack of reforestation. However, because of his more stringent criteria, he was not able to find enough data to classify all Papuan languages, especially many isolates that have no close relatives to aid in their classification. Joseph Greenberg proposed an Indo-Pacific phylum containing the (Northern) Andamanese languages, all Papuan languages, and the Tasmanian languages, but not the Australian Aboriginal languages. However, Ross argues that Papuan languages have closed-class pronoun systems, which are resistant to borrowing, and in any case that the massive number of languages with similar pronouns in a family like Trans–New Guinea preclude borrowing as an explanation. That is, he looked at shared vocabulary, and especially shared idiosyncrasies analogous to English I and me vs. German ich and mich. A total of about 6.9 million people worldwide speak Papuan languages as their mother tongue. About one-third of the population is under 15 years of age. After 1975 smallholders increasingly took over the bulk of export crop production, replacing foreign-owned plantations. However, he considered this not evidence of a connection between (Great) Andamanese and Trans–New Guinea, but of a substratum from an earlier migration to New Guinea from the west. >>Motu spoken in Papua region >>820 indigenous languages (over 1/10th of the world's total) There are upwards of 750 separate languages spoken throughout Papua New Guinea. One fifth of all the world's languages are to be English is one of the official languages spoken in the country. Several languages of Flores, Sumba, and other islands of eastern Indonesia are classified as Austronesian but have large numbers of non-Austronesian words in their basic vocabulary and non-Austronesian grammatical features. Unemployment and underemployment have exacerbated the problems of poverty, crime, and ethnic tensions, especially in urban areas. The English language has e… Müller, André, Viveka Velupillai, Søren Wichmann, Cecil H. Brown, Eric W. Holman, Sebastian Sauppe, Pamela Brown, Harald Hammarström, Oleg Belyaev, Johann-Mattis List, Dik Bakker, Dmitri Egorov, Matthias Urban, Robert Mailhammer, Matthew S. Dryer, Evgenia Korovina, David Beck, Helen Geyer, Pattie Epps, Anthony Grant, and Pilar Valenzuela. The north coast and northeastern archipelagoes are generally well-populated, despite the hazards of volcanic eruptions, frequent earth tremors, and, rarely, tsunamis. With an average of only 7,000 speakers per language, Papua New Guinea has a greater density of languages than any other nation on earth except Vanuatu. The southern New Guinea plains are only sparsely populated by relatively mobile sago gatherers. The major exception has been the cultivation of oil palm in West New Britain (on previously little-used volcanic soils) and on the eastern mainland, boosted by foreign investment. Although there has been relatively little study of these languages compared with the Austronesian family, there have been three preliminary attempts at large-scale genealogical classification, by Joseph Greenberg, Stephen Wurm, and Malcolm Ross. It has been suggested that the families that appear when comparing pronouns may be due to pronoun borrowing rather than to genealogical relatedness. Languages of Papua New Guinea - Wikipedia “Its official languages are Tok Pisin, English, Hiri Motu and Papua New Guinean Sign Language.” If you are going there and want to be able to talk the most people there, learn Tok Pisin, as the majority of people in most the nation speak that. - em hamas? Ethnologue (2009) largely follows Ross. (See Trans–New Guinea languages.) The most widely used classification of Papuan languages is that of Wurm, listed below with the approximate number of languages in each family in parentheses. Although pronouns are conservative elements in a language, they are both short and utilise a reduced set of the language's phonemic inventory. - yu orait ? In addition, poorly attested Karami remains unclassified. English is the first. The Highlands valleys are densely settled, whether in villages or scattered hamlets. He classed the vast majority as ‘cyclic’. The production of plantation crops has suffered from declining terms of trade and was mostly stagnant from the 1980s. In the archipelagoes of the north and northeast, yams, taro, and bananas are grown as staple foods. The majority of Papua New Guinea’s people are at least nominally Christian. However, more recently Foley has accepted the broad outline if not the details of Wurm's classification, as he and Ross have substantiated a large portion of Wurm's Trans–New Guinea phylum. Despite the greatly diminished importance of plantations and the relocation of most of the airstrips out of the towns, those origins helped determine the existing urban layout. In most everyday contexts the most widely spoken language is Tok Pisin (“Pidgin Language”; also called Melanesian Pidgin or Neo-Melanesian), a creole combining grammatical elements of indigenous languages, some German, and, increasingly, English. They are Tok Pisin, English, Hiri Motu, and Papua New Guinean Sign Language. English is mainly spoken by migrants and expatriates working in the country. There are languages that are spoken by thousands of people while others only have dozens of speakers. Despite the apparent inroads made by introduced religions, much of the population also maintains traditional religious beliefs, and rituals of magic, spells, and sorcery are still widely practiced. New Guinea languages (351 Papuan, 188 Austronesian) though, in many cases, available information was meagre. [8] Some of the groups could turn out to be related to each other, but Wichmann (2013) lists them as separate groups pending further research. Other linguists, including William A. Foley, have suggested that many of Wurm's phyla are based on areal features and structural similarities, and accept only the lowest levels of his classification, most of which he inherited from prior taxonomies. With a share of around 78%, it is most widespread in Papua New Guinea. There are a lot of languages spoken here because of the cultural diversity. Papua New Guinea. This was the scheme used by Ethnologue prior to Ross's classification (below). It is a multilingual nation with over 840 languages spoken, with twelve of them lacking many speakers. Papua New Guinea’s rate of population growth tends to be high and life expectancy somewhat low, relative to other countries in the region. Despite only having four official languages, Papua New Guinea has an astonishing 832 native languages spoken within its borders. Papua New Guinea has 839 languages -- the highest number of languages spoken as a first language in a single country. 304 Papua New Guinea is a country of a little more than three million inhabitants in which it is said that 750 distinct languages are spoken. What are the islands of the Maldives made of? Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. There is over 850 languages in Papua New Guinea! The small urban population lives for the most part in towns whose original location was determined either by access to a good harbour for early colonial planters or, in the interior, by the availability of level land sufficient for an airstrip. New Guinea is the most linguistically diverse region in the world. 2013. Papuan speakers, who constitute the great majority of the population, live mainly in the interior. While Pawley & Hammarström's internal classification of Trans-New Guinea largely resembles a composite of Usher's and Ross' classifications, Palmer et al. As of 2020, the following families are identified:[19]. "[13][14][15][16], Papuan independent language families (43 families), Papuan isolates and unclassified languages (37 total), Glottolog 4.0 (2019), based partly on Usher, recognizes 70 independent families and 55 isolates. Factbook > Countries > Papua New Guinea > Demographics Languages: Tok Pisin (official), English (official), Hiri Motu (official), some 839 indigenous languages spoken (about 12% of the world's total); many languages have fewer than 1,000 speakers It is based on very preliminary work, much of it typological, and Wurm himself has stated that he doesn't expect it to hold up well to scrutiny. Agricultural production, most of it from subsistence farming, accounts for about one-third of the country’s gross domestic product. Seventh-day Adventism is increasing in popularity, and there are also small numbers of Bahāʾīs and Muslims. However, the Tasmanian peoples were isolated for perhaps 10,000 years, genocide wiped out their languages before much was recorded of them, and few linguists expect that they will ever be linked to another language family. [12] A total of 80 independent groups are recognized. Tweet. In addition to the official languages, there are more than 800 distinct indigenous languages belonging to two radically different language groups—Austronesian, to which the local languages classified as Melanesian belong, and non-Austronesian, or Papuan. [22], Cover term for several language families spoken in New Guinea and neighboring areas, Papuan families proposed by Wurm (1975) (with approximate numbers of languages), Papuan families other than TNG accepted by Foley (2003), Papuan families proposed by Wichmann (2013), Papuan families proposed by Palmer (2018). READ PAPER. Such diversity makes it a linguist's playground! The Reef Islands – Santa Cruz languages of Wurm's East Papuan phylum were a potential 24th family, but subsequent work has shown them to be highly divergent Austronesian languages as well. Language-in-education policies in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are possibly the most interesting and best model for the world to follow. Tiny Papua New Guinea is all of 462,840 square kilometres in size, about as big as the state of California. When it became independent in 1949, the government of Papua New Guinea chose three languages for official use – English, Tok Pisin (creole) and Hiri Motu (simplified form of the Austronesian language, Motu). • TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea (by Simon Greenhill) Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages, East Cenderawasih (Geelvink Bay) languages, languages of the East New Guinea Highlands, "Explaining the Linguistic Diversity of Sahul Using Population Models", Distant Language Relationship: The Current Perspective, ASJP World Language Trees of Lexical Similarity: Version 4 (October 2013), Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea, 2003 bibliography of languages (Papuan and Austronesian) of Indonesian Papua, Summer Institute of Linguistics site on languages (Papuan and Austronesian) of Papua New Guinea, Map of Papuan languages (formerly known as the East Papuan family) of island Melanesia, Dryer's Papuan Language Families and Genera, Endangered Languages of the Pacific Region, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Papuan_languages&oldid=998544225, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, There is a cluster of languages in West Papua between the upper, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 21:41. Papuan languages speaking countries Papuan languages is no official language in any country, but is spoken as mother tongue in 2 countries by a minor part of the population. English is also the main language in the education system. [17], Timothy Usher and Edgar Suter, with the advice of Papuan researchers such as William Croft, Matthew Dryer, John Lynch, Andrew Pawley, and Malcolm Ross,[18] have reconstructed low-level constituents of Papuan language families to verify which purported members truly belong to them. The Papuan languages are the non-Austronesian and non-Australian languages spoken on the western Pacific island of New Guinea, and neighbouring islands, by around 4 million people. These languages all have SVO word order, with the exception of the language isolate Kuot, which has VSO word order. Greenberg also suggested a connection to the Tasmanian languages. Much of their classification is accepted by Glottolog (though the names are not; Glottolog invents its own names). It is so diverse that each province has about two to three different languages. Sweet potato farming, south-central Highlands, Papua New Guinea. A profile of the languages in Papua New Guinea. [1] It is a strictly geographical grouping, and does not imply a genetic relationship. I've made it safely to my 134th country - PAPUA NEW GUINEA! Despite its small size, it is the most linguistically diverse country on the planet. Austronesian speakers generally inhabit the coastal regions and offshore islands, including the Trobriands and Buka. Papua New Guinea (PNG) across the border has more than 800 indigenous languages which is more than one tenth of the world total. Very few linguists accept his grouping. Wurm believed the Papuan languages arrived in several waves of migration with some of the earlier languages (perhaps including the Sepik–Ramu languages) being related to the Australian languages,[5][6] a later migration bringing the West Papuan, Torricelli and the East Papuan languages[5] and a third wave bringing the most recent pre-Austronesian migration, the Trans–New Guinea family. According to Ross (see below), the main problem with Wurm's classification is that he did not take contact-induced change into account. Foley (1986) divides Papuan languages into over sixty small language families, plus a number of isolates. [7] Besides Trans–New Guinea and families possibly belonging in TNG (see), he accepted the proposals for. In the colonial era copra was the premier crop in lowland areas, but now only small amounts are produced, together with some rubber in the southern region. It has been suggested that these may have originally been non-Austronesian languages that have borrowed nearly all of their vocabulary from neighboring Austronesian languages, but no connection with the Papuan languages of Timor has been found. To the west of New Guinea, the largest languages are Makasae in East Timor (100,000 in 2010) and Galela in Halmahera (80,000 reported 1990). [4], The Great Andamanese languages may be related to some western Papuan languages, but are not themselves covered by the term Papuan.[2]. Unlock this profile with an Essentials plan.. See the details on every language spoken in Papua New Guinea, plus: Profiles for every other country in the world; 7,464 profiles covering every language … To the east, Terei (27,000 reported 2003) and Naasioi (20,000 reported 2007) are spoken on Bougainville. However, the nation is considered as the most linguistically diverse country in the … For example, several of the main branches of his Trans–New Guinea phylum have no vocabulary in common with other Trans–New Guinea languages, and were classified as Trans–New Guinea because they are similar grammatically. William A. Foley (1986) noted lexical similarities between R. M. W. Dixon's 1980 reconstruction of proto-Australian and the languages of the East New Guinea Highlands. English is the main language of government and commerce. Forest exploitation, dominated by foreign-owned logging companies, has been extensive, particularly along the north coast, in parts of the southern region, and on New Britain and New Ireland. Most of the government communications and publications are often made in English. The poor state of documentation of Papuan languages restricts this approach largely to pronouns. However, it is spoken by about 100,000 people or 1-2% of the population. Foley summarized the state of the literature. The popular language is spoken by over 200,000 people. After independence, Papua New Guinea adopted three official languages. High-quality Arabica coffee is grown throughout the Highlands, mostly by smallholders; Robusta coffee is grown on the north coast and cacao in the islands. [5], Two of Wurm's isolates have since been linked as the. An estimated 742 other languages and dialects are also many Austronesian languages that are grammatically similar Trans–New... Formerly also the staple foods the exception of the great majority of Papua New Guinea the... Two languages belonging to a New family have been sold cheaply and fishing zones monitored poorly Tambora. Sweet potato farming, south-central Highlands, Papua New Guinea has an astonishing 832 native languages spoken across Europe groups! Over 850 languages in Papua New Guinea Kuot, which has VSO word order, with twelve them... 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