trafficking in persons report 2020

These determinations cover the reporting period beginning April 1, 2019 and ending March 31, 2020. A number of human trafficking cases in sports have been reported by news outlets and in documentaries. Finally, there are a number of resources, such as UNICEF’s Interfaith Toolkit to End Trafficking, to help educate faith leaders and faith-based organizations on the issue of human trafficking and to empower them with the resources they need to take action in a way that prevents further harm to victims. No reported allegations – NATO relies on contributing countries to report allegations. Belize The term “child soldier” includes any person described in clauses (ii), (iii), or (iv) who is serving in any capacity, including in a support role, such as a “cook, porter, messenger, medic, guard, or sex slave.”. It required the small staff to create simultaneously both a methodology for the report and processes for gathering data, drafting narratives, and assessing government efforts. In 2018, Matewere helped spur a fruitful collaboration between the Malawi government’s National Trafficking in Persons Coordinator and the Ministry of Homeland Security, resulting in trainings and awareness campaigns across the country. PDF (50.1MB) Permalink: https://www.state.gov/trafficking-in-persons-report-2020/. The Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to end the Exploitation of Children Today (PROTECT) Act, enacted in 2003, broadened the United States’ ability to address extraterritorial child sexual exploitation and abuse by making it a crime for U.S. nationals to travel abroad and engage in illicit sexual conduct with children, including child sex trafficking. Still other perpetrators are “situational abusers” who do not travel specifically to commit child sexual exploitation and abuse, but take advantage of an opportunity if it arises. Myrna E. Walch France For the athletes who have dedicated their lives to sign a contract, the fear of losing the opportunity by questioning the terms of that contract or their so-called agent can be insurmountable. In 2014, Pope Francis joined with 11 other religious leaders representing the Muslim, Jewish, Orthodox, Anglican, Buddhist, and Hindu faiths to commit to work together and within their respective communities to inspire spiritual and practical action to help eradicate human trafficking worldwide. These types of activities can help increase the general understanding of what constitutes human trafficking and spur new institutional approaches for combating it. Saint Lucia Patricia Ho’s unwavering leadership has been a driving force in increasing awareness of human trafficking in Hong Kong. $107,000 For years, Lāsma Stabiņa has driven Latvia’s anti-trafficking response. The original three-tier ranking system was created to indicate how well other governments complied with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking laid out in the law. United Arab Emirates Throughout the year, the report serves as a roadmap for diplomatic engagement with governments around the world on human trafficking. Varela and Correia demonstrated tremendous diligence in carrying out their investigation, working despite pressure to drop the case and overt hostility from the traffickers’ networks and their peers. It was only 103 pages long and included brief two-paragraph descriptions of each country’s efforts to combat human trafficking. The 2004 TIP Report collected this data for the first time. Understand that survivors of trafficking may require additional wraparound services. Guatemala Papua New Guinea Alexis Ramdass The UN and other organizations carrying out peace operations, and troop- and police-contributing countries must reflect on peacekeepers’ positions of power and privilege relative to the host population and the myriad ways this dynamic contributes to sexual exploitation and abuse. Within human trafficking, trauma bonding may cause coerced co-offending, perceived ambivalence, delayed or inaccurate reporting, or unwillingness to cooperate with law enforcement. For the knowing commission of any act of sex trafficking involving force, fraud, coercion, or in which the victim of sex trafficking is a child incapable of giving meaningful consent, or of trafficking which includes rape or kidnapping or which causes a death, the government of the country should prescribe punishment commensurate with that for grave crimes, such as forcible sexual assault. Countries whose governments do not fully meet the TVPA’s minimum standards and are not making significant efforts to do so. Trafficking in Persons Report 2020 June 25, 2020 Secretary Pompeo, joined by Ivanka Trump and Ambassador John Cotton Richmond, unveiled the 2020 Trafficking in Persons Report and honored TIP Report Heroes on June 25 at the State Department. Stabiņa also secured the Latvian government’s support for national and regional public awareness campaigns. Sri Lanka Nor are faith communities hemmed in by borders. This lack of resources, guidance, and social support increases their vulnerability to traffickers. The first efforts to address trafficking in persons focused heavily on combating the sex trafficking of women and girls. Trafficking in Persons Report 2020 Last Thursday, the Trafficking in Persons Report 2020 was released by the U.S. Department of State. Ryan Mulvenna The control in a trauma bond may help a person mentally make sense of the world, whereas escaping the trauma bond and trying to make independent decisions may feel overwhelming. In an effort to incentivize continuous improvement, the reauthorization limited the number of consecutive years a country could remain on the Tier 2 Watch List to two consecutive years, after which it would be automatically downgraded to Tier 3 should it fail to make improvements that would warrant an upgrade. Brunei Maria received the medical and psychological support she needed from a nonprofit organization. Governments could consider: increasing coordination between their youth or child services programs and their sports programs; training consular officers on common indicators or schemes traffickers use within student or sports visas programs; and pursuing partnerships or dialogues with sports agencies and leagues to begin to address this form of human trafficking, such as through nationwide public awareness initiatives. Perhaps most challenging for the TIP Office and posts overseas was the effort to gather data from other governments, many of which had never developed systematic measures for collecting human trafficking data nor shared such data before. The complex relationship between addiction and both labor and sex trafficking is recognized by the United States criminal justice system. Karen Vierling Allen Argentina The draft amendments to the 2014 Trafficking in Persons Act to bring the law in line with international standards, remained pending at the close of the reporting period. While the TVPA only called for a ranking of governments, those involved in the preparation of the first report included a brief explanation for the tier rankings to provide clarity and context to the report. Shoukr formed Al-Shehab based on listening sessions she held with vulnerable women in Cairo’s slums to better understand their problems, why they felt exploited, and how she could practically help them. The results of this study will identify existing gaps in service provision and provide recommendations for improvement. Among other steps, governments must end state-sponsored forced labor; they must increase prosecutions of human traffickers; and they should expand their efforts to identify and care for trafficking victims, while ensuring they are not punished for crimes traffickers compelled them to commit. A copy of the Memorandum of Justification provided to Congress with the waiver determination is available online at the TIP Office’s website. broad-based law enforcement or developmental initiatives. In 2019, Embassy Banjul in The Gambia worked with the Gambian government and multi-sector stakeholders to implement that country’s national action plan to combat human trafficking. Handbook – How to prevent human trafficking for domestic servitude in diplomatic households and protect private domestic workers (2014): http://www.osce.org/handbook/domesticservitude. The growing number of young players aspiring to become professional athletes and the potential to sign the next greatest deal inevitably draws human traffickers looking to profit from the exploitation of players’ dreams. Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, Div. Over the years, Colonel Rigzin has trained immigration officials, senior police officers, and non-commissioned officers on identification of trafficking victims and investigation techniques and has successfully advocated for increased funding for trafficking victim services. Section 402 of the CSPA requires publication in the annual TIP Report of a list of foreign governments identified during the previous year as having governmental armed forces, police, or other security forces, or government-supported armed groups that recruit or use child soldiers, as defined in the CSPA. Unlike governments, faith-based organizations are not limited by jurisdiction, election cycles, or political will. Systemic inaccessibility to stability is noted frequently among human trafficking survivors. The Trafficking in Persons Report by the US Department of State for 2020 has been released. Sonia Helmy-Dentzel The often insufficient oversight by sport governing bodies and lack of government enforcement further allows unscrupulous agents to operate. The traffickers physically abused and starved him when he did not meet his quota. Efforts focused on training both government and private sector actors and raising awareness. This 20th anniversary TIP Report is a powerful tool forged to advance the global community’s commitment to put freedom first. Desirée Suo Weymont Page 63: © Moises Saman/Magnum Photos 2020 Trafficking in Persons Report Mongolia (Tier 2) The Government of Mongolia does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so. Though some national sports associations and individual government officials have taken interest in addressing the exploitation of athletes, the global nature of the sports industry and decentralized structure of many associations and leagues calls for a more systematic and standardized approach. If abandoned abroad, players often remain in the country undocumented not knowing how to contact family and friends or too afraid to do so because of a strong sense of shame and self-blame. He abused her emotionally and physically. The data submitted for the report by governments and other actors reflect an enhanced understanding of human trafficking, a growing commitment to transparency, and an increasing willingness to work together in addressing a challenge that affects all countries. Austria They can also promote standard operating procedures for health officials, develop formal guidance on victim identification and assistance, and offer online or other forms of training for health, behavioral health, public health, and social work professionals. Malaysia. The government demonstrated overall increasing efforts compared to the previous reporting period; therefore Mongolia remained on Tier 2. There should be clarity as to what will be done with the patient’s health record and who will have access to it. Over the years, the methodology, content, and design of the TIP Report have evolved, reflecting in many ways the broader anti-trafficking movement’s progress in understanding the crime. Samantha Novick Page 44: Paula Bronstein The 2008 reauthorization also included the Child Soldiers Prevention Act (CSPA), mandating the inclusion of a list in the TIP Report of foreign governments that had been found to have unlawfully recruited or used child soldiers. A recruiter convinced her to leave Nigeria for better opportunities in Ghana. Romania Similar to traumatic stress effects on the brain, substance use disorder involves biochemical changes to the brain and adds an additional layer of risk, especially for survivors with post-traumatic stress disorder. The TVPA also authorizes the President to waive funding these restrictions if necessary to avoid significant adverse effects on vulnerable populations, including women and girls, and children. While overcoming government threats early on and innumerable other obstacles throughout her career, she has demonstrated resilience and further committed to women’s empowerment and anti-trafficking efforts. Niger Through the TIP Report’s minimum standards, the TVPA recognizes that countries that send troops to participate in peacekeeping missions should be responsible for training their troops on human trafficking and holding those troops accountable if they engage, while on such missions, in inappropriate behavior, including human trafficking. Varela, a public prosecutor, and Correia, a member of the Judiciary Police, have persistently pursued human trafficking cases within the country. The 106th Congress of the United States passed the TVPA in 2000, the first comprehensive federal law designed to protect victims of sex and labor trafficking, prosecute traffickers, and prevent human trafficking in the United States and abroad. The Angel Watch Center uses publicly available sex offender registry information and passenger travel data to strategically alert foreign law enforcement of a convicted child sex offender’s intent to travel to their country. the extent to which the country is a country of origin, transit, or destination for severe forms of trafficking; the extent to which the country’s government does not meet the TVPA’s minimum standards and, in particular, the extent to which officials or government employees have been complicit in severe forms of trafficking; reasonable measures that the government would need to undertake to be in compliance with the minimum standards in light of the government’s resources and capabilities to address and eliminate severe forms of trafficking in persons; the extent to which the government is devoting sufficient budgetary resources to investigate and prosecute human trafficking, convict and sentence traffickers; and obtain restitution for victims of human trafficking; and. 1107 Addendum to the OSCE Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings, Decision No. Most NGOs concentrate their efforts on specific aspects of anti-trafficking policies—from protection for victims to law enforcement training and public outreach campaigns. When Mary returned to school, the principal encouraged her to speak about her experience and Mary admitted that her teacher, Mr. Baraka, had taken her to live with his daughter, who needed someone to care for her baby and had paid Mary’s mother $9 in exchange. They then used the threat of withdrawal—which causes extreme pain and suffering and can be fatal without medical supervision—to control the victims and coerce them to engage in commercial sex, compounding the victims’ trauma. Adrienne Sgarlato Tunisia These efforts included identifying more victims than the previous reporting period, increasing the number of trafficking-specialist … Mexico b)  participation in international sex tourism by nationals of the country. However, in Peru, between 2019 and 2020… A 2008 amendment to the TVPA provides that any country that has been ranked Tier 2 Watch List for two consecutive years and that would otherwise be ranked Tier 2 Watch List for the next year will instead be ranked Tier 3 in that third year. Although diplomatic engagement on human trafficking occurs year-round, the process for drafting the TIP Report begins in the fall, when the Department of State’s TIP Office requests information from U.S. embassies regarding the profile of human trafficking in that country and efforts of the government to combat it. For the purpose of the CSPA, as amended in 2019 (Pub. Faith-based efforts to combat human trafficking take many forms and operate in different ways, adapting to a particular context or sector, or to the culture of the communities and countries in which they serve. The Department ranks each country in this report on one of four tiers, as mandated by the TVPA. In June, the 2020 US Trafficking in Persons Report (TIP) was released. Traffickers are denying nearly 25 million people their fundamental right to freedom, forcing them to live enslaved and toil for their exploiter’s profit. This information allows other countries to press governments for investigations and accountability against the perpetrators. (Details on the tier ranking process can be found on pages 39-41.). It contains a host of recommendations for Australia including strengthening or increasing: efforts to identify trafficked people; training of frontline officials; education for those at risk; and services available to trafficked people. Guinea Other indicators point to significant improvement in the past 20 years. Cameroon That event marks the culmination of an entire year of activity dedicated to diplomatic engagement built around the tier rankings and country narrative recommendations, as well as the production of the report itself. Page 16: Elisabetta Zavoli James Taylor Once the Secretary approves the report and determines tier rankings, the Department submits it to Congress in June and releases it to the public. Despite his refusal, the man seized and bound Huy and transported him to a windowless warehouse in China. Indicia of “Serious and Sustained Efforts”, a)  domestic civil society organizations, private sector entities, or international nongovernmental organizations, or into multilateral or regional arrangements or agreements, to assist the government’s efforts to prevent trafficking, protect victims, and punish traffickers; or. There has never been a more important moment to engage the fight for freedom. 1), http://scm.oas.org/IDMS/Redirectpage.aspx?class=XXXIX.4%20RTP-IV/doc.&classNum=4&lang=e, Inter-American Declaration against Trafficking in Persons “Declaration of Brasilia” (2014), Hemispheric Efforts against Trafficking in Persons “Declaration of Mexico” (2018), Advancing Hemispheric Security: A Multidimensional Approach (AG/RES.2945 XLIX-O/19), http://scm.oas.org/IDMS/Redirectpage.aspx?class=AG/doc.&classNum=5682&lang=e, Progress Report: II Work Plan Against Trafficking in Persons In The Western Hemisphere 2015-2018, http://mneguidelines.oecd.org/OECD-Due-Diligence-Guidance-Garment-Footwear.pdf. For example, in 2001, just four countries (Bulgaria, Monaco, Nigeria, and Serbia) had ratified the Palermo Protocol. First, one law reduced the availability of the automatic downgrade waiver to one year (from two years). Restrictions on Assistance for Governments of Tier 3 Countries. Ultimately, he succeeded in forcing Ted to engage in commercial sex. Russia Ravi Buck Tatum West Examination of the relationship between socioeconomic factors and the occurrence of trauma bonding is necessary. To my intrepid colleagues at the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (TIP Office), thank you for your perseverance and grit in every detail of this work. After reasonable requests from the Department of State for data regarding such investigations, prosecutions, convictions, and sentences, a government which does not provide such data, consistent with a demonstrably increasing capacity of such government to obtain such data, shall be presumed not to have vigorously investigated, prosecuted, convicted, or sentenced such acts. Section 4. Japan Czech Republic Malaysia Anna Fraser Public and private health care institutions, universities, and community organizations have been developing innovative partnerships and practices to provide specialized and comprehensive health care to survivors. Abigail Long Section 4 contains the justifications for such waivers. As professional sports leagues have become increasingly globalized, multilateral and regional bodies have started incorporating protection of athletes in sports integrity and anticorruption initiatives; however, government and industry efforts to regulate an expanding web of migration and recruitment routes have proven insufficient. Timor-Leste Equatorial Guinea Pursuant to a 2019 amendment to the TVPA, the Secretary of State is authorized to waive the automatic downgrade only once, in that third year, based on credible evidence that a waiver is justified because the government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute making significant efforts to meet the TVPA’s minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is devoting sufficient resources to implement the plan. Her expertise, patience, and bravery have positioned her as a source of inspiration and a confidant for other survivors of trafficking she meets and serves. At the 2020 Trafficking in Persons Report Launch Ceremony (June 25) MICHAEL R. POMPEO, SECRETARY OF STATE TREATY ROOM WASHINGTON, D.C. JUNE 25, 2020 AMBASSADOR RICHMOND: Good afternoon, and welcome to the TIP Report rollout for 2020. In research on the topic, trauma bonding is commonly referred to as “Stockholm Syndrome,” and the terms may be used interchangeably. Hope lies ahead. Andrew Pfender The OSCE is providing workshops and training to participating States on financial investigations into trafficking, using technology to combat trafficking, preventing trafficking in organizations’ supply chains, and identifying trafficking victims. Over the past two decades, her organization has assisted more than 16,000 people. 106-386, § 108, as amended. Brazil Renee Huffman As of April 15, PKO funding was obligated for Somali National Army for the following activities: logistical support, advisory support, training, and equipment. Cote d’Ivoire efforts, however laudable, undertaken exclusively by nongovernmental actors in the country; general public awareness events—government-sponsored or otherwise—lacking concrete ties to the prosecution of traffickers, protection of victims, or prevention of trafficking; and. Page 34: Getty Images Description and Amount of Assistance Provided Pursuant to a Waiver. In addition, there is no definitive understanding of trauma bonding’s prevalence within trafficking situations and not all trafficking victims experience it. However, there is no medical standard for diagnosis of either, nor any agreed upon definition of trauma bonding. Maura K. McManus In most cases, the photographs that accompany the stories are not images of confirmed trafficking victims. In Florida, the Trafficking Health care Resources and Interdisciplinary Victim Services and Education (THRIVE) Clinic at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine provides the resources of a world-class research hospital to trafficking survivors across the Southeast. Jennifer M. Ho Lithuania Each year, the Department of State honors individuals around the world who have devoted their lives to the fight against human trafficking. 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